Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Menghaluskan wajah memakai aplikasi Photoshop

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 sebelum & Sesudah
Dah lama nih pengen bagi-bagi tips lagi menggunakan aplikasi Photoshop yang pernah sebelumnya saya publish diawal-awal blog ini saya buat, sebenarnya tutorial ini khusus ditujukan bagi rekan2 yang hobby jepret-jepret dan bercita-cita menjadi foto model, namun wajah tidak fotogenik alias tidak mendukung (he. he. he..).  Kebanyakan trik ini digunakan pada studio foto Profesional namun mereka menggunakan tools-tools atau software plugins khusus untuk memperhalus atau menghilangkan noise hasil jepretan kamera mereka untuk menghasilkan hasil cetak yang bagus dengan lebih cepat. Disini yang saya gunakan hanya sedikit trik menggunakan aplikasi yang sudah umum digunakan yaitu Photoshop, versi Photoshop yang digunakanpun bisa apa saja dari versi Photoshop 7 sampe yang terbaru sekarang Photoshop CS3.

Disini saya ambil sampel objek dari mantan pacar saya yaitu Revalina S Temat yang memang sejak berpisah dengan saya, wajahnya agak sedikit dihiasi oleh jerawat (Ceileee, maaf Reva ya.. i lop yu olwes deh). Hanya membutuhkan 4 langkah saja kita dapat memanipulasi foto yang kita miliki tersebut. Sebelumnya terlebih dahulu buka aplikasi Photoshop Anda, disini saya menggunakan Photoshop CS2 dan setelah itu siapkan foto yang akan di manipulasi  tersebut.
1. Menduplikat Layer Backgorund.
Pada saat membuka file foto pada Photoshop, kita akan memiliki satu buah layer yaitu layer background :
duplikat layer back
Langkah pertama adalah menduplikat layer background tersebut. cara paling mudah dengan menggunakan shortcut pada keyboard, Tekan Ctrl+J (Win) / Command+J (Mac). Dan pada layer palette akan muncul layer 1 diatas layer background. yang merupakan hasil duplikasi dari layer background tersebut :
hasil duplikat layer background
2. Masuk ke Edit Quick Mask
Langkah selanjutnya pastikan Layer 1 hasil duplikat kita tadi aktif/terseleksi, terus masuk ke Edit Quick Mask dengan menekan Q atau pada tools pallete di sebelah kiri dibagian bawah pilih icon bujur sangkar yang ditengahnya ada lingkaran di sebelah kanan :
edit quick mode
Selanjutnya pilih erase tools pada tools pallete atau tekan E di keyboard untuk lebih mudah :
seleksi erase tools
3. Seleksi menggunakan Erase Tools.
Apabila background color & foreground color sudah dalam posisi default, invert dengan menekan tombol X di keyboard  :
invert foregroun color
Setelah itu dengan menggunakan eraser tools lakukan seleksi dengan mengarahkan eraser tools ke bagian-bagian foto yang akan diperhalus seperti contoh dibawah ini :
seleksi di quick mask
catatan : pada saat eraser tools aktif, tekan mouse kiri dan jangan dilepas dibagian foto yang akan diseleksi, drag mouse kekanan kekiri, atas bawah, maju mundur terserah deh. hingga menghasilkan warna agak kemerah-merahan dibagian yang Anda pilih. Apabila telah selesai seleksi, ada bagian yang kelebihan, Anda bisa menghapusnya dengan menginvert kembali background color dengan menekan X pada keyboard dan hapus bagian yang lebih tersebut dengan menggunakan eraser tools tersebut kembali.
Setelah puas mengobok-obok foto tersebut, kita kembali ke editing Standard Mode dengan menekan Q  atau menekan icon yang berada di sebelah edit Quick Mask di tools pallete tadi. Setelah berada di posisi Standard Mode foto yang tadi kita eraser di quick mask mode akan tampak seperti ini :
kembali ke stabdar mode
terdapat seleksi dibagian-bagian yang telah kita tandai pada saat di Edit Quick Mask tadi, lalu pada menu pilih Select, Inverse atau memakai shortcut pada keyboard dengan menekan  Ctrl+Shift I (Win) / Command+Shift I (Mac) untuk membalik pilihan sehingga menjadi seperti dibawah ini :
hasil seleksi standar mode
4.  Tambahkan Gaussian Blur pada layer yang telah diseleksi.
Ini adalah langkah ke 4, yang merupakan langkah terakhir. Yang kita perlukan adalah memberi Filter Gaussian Blur pada layer yang telah terseleksi. Sebelumnya pilih di menu Select, Feather :
select feather
dan akan muncul kotak dialog seperti dibawah ini :
kotak dialog feather
berikan angka 1 s.d 5 di kolom Fetaher Radius di kotak dilaog Feather teresbut. Disini saya memasukan angka 2.
Setelah itu layer yang paling atas (layer1) terpilih di layer pallete. Pilih pada menu yang terletak paling atas di monitor anda. Pilih menu Filter, pilih Blur dan pilih Gaussian Blur pada list menu Blur yang tampil tersebut :
pilih filter gaussian blur
lalu akan muncul kotak dialog gaussian blur :
boks gaussian blur
lalu rubah dengan menggeser slider pada boks gaussian tersebut, cari nilai yang sesuai dengan hasil yang Anda harapkan. Disini saya memilih nilai 7.6 pixels sesuai dengan foto yang saya gunakan. Klik ok apabila Anda telah mendapatkan hasil yang bagus.
DAN HASIL AKHIRNYA ADALAH :
hasil akhir
Disini terlihat tahi lalat Reva menghilang, tetapi tenang untuk memunculkannya kembali kita bisa menggunakan langkah berikut ini :
Uncheck layer 1
Setelah layer 1 dinonaktifkan akan kembali terlihat layer background (yaitu foto awal yang belum diedit) kemudian menggunakan lasso tools dengan menekan L pada keyboard lalu seleksi tahi lalat yang ada pada objek  sampai tampak seperti ini :
seleksi tahi lalat
lalu pilih di menu Select, Feather masukan angka 4 (isi Feather Radius sesuaikan dengan hasil seleksi Anda antara 2 s.d 8)
Kemudian duplikat seleksi tadi dengan menekan Ctrl+J (Win) / Command+J (Mac). Dan pada layer palette akan muncul layer 2 diatas layer background. yang merupakan hasil duplikasi dari layer background tersebut :
duplikat layer2 back
Klik kembali ikon mata pada layer 1 selanjutnya Drag/geser layer 2 kebagian paling atas layer 1, hingga posisi layer seperti gambar dibawah ini :
geser layer 2 ke atas layer 1
Dan hasil akhir foto setelah ditambah tahi lalat, seperti gambar dibawah ini :
hasil akhir tahi lalat
silahkan mencoba, maaf kalau tutorialnya agak sedikit bikin bingung. ya..
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COHABITATION

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The trend that began to circulate in a limited circle is only one house without a valid marriage bond and behave like a married couple or commonly referred to as Samen Leven. Indonesian society had a special designation that is not less popular, that is cohabiting. From the name alone is pinned, the community has been able to judge that such behavior is an aberration to be analogous to the animal buffalo. Deviations that allows full access to negativity view of society.
We know that Indonesia is a country that is still thick with the traditional oriental (still there now?). Uphold traditional moral values ​​as his starting point. Although, sometimes it is starting actualization 'silenced' by invasions western culture with modernization and acculturation dressed and outspoken culture without a moral filter. At least, cognitively, Indonesia is a country east. Hereditary, recognized or not, our society still assumes that cohabiting relationships is a term of free-sex and free-sex is a taboo. They give the impression that cohabiting is that although adultery behavior by the perpetrator actually trying to claim as a legal relationship. Social sanctions still remain upheld. Society firmly still dripping idea to isolate the perpetrator cohabiting.
If the line can be drawn a little justification, that in fact is not always the desire merely cohabiting was always dominated by the orientation towards sex. However, tend it is impossible to say there is no sex in it. During this appears byword in the community that the will is the will of cohabiting mere sex. Precisely selected communities with a 'hit rate' behavior merely cohabiting with free sex (free-sex) without official status that often lead to paradoxical views about cohabiting. Moreover, in it not infrequently appears the desire to live happy and harmonious family life with a partner like without the need to bound the laws of marriage are sometimes felt to be irrational and unfair.
However, when viewed from the socio-religious point of view, it is clear that cohabiting is a serious blow to a country like Indonesia religious. Cohabiting is something that is false and strictly forbidden by religion. Both it and its dominance over whether or not sexual orientation. Because there are a Muhrim terminology and non-Muhrim which became the dividing line and the controller of the opposite sex relationships.
The presence of cohabiting not just stand alone. There are several factors that are often used as a straightforward reason why someone does cohabiting, namely:
First, for those who are less moderate, sometimes appears the assumption that cohabiting is the first step to the ship sailed home. Trauma and phobias for the failure of marriage is the main reason. Cohabiting is often seen as a means of pre-wedding to her partner about each other and understand the outside-in. The statement that it believed is, failure is the failure of love marriage. Then, in-cluster where the view that 'Love does not have to have' it habitable.
Second, for example, the scheme of the day in the Javanese market fundamentals that are sometimes considered to be irrational. A person who was born on Thursday Wage will not live happily if it relates in love with someone who was born on Wednesday Pahing. Even with the tragic outcome was sentenced to starch, which means death. However, in reality not rare marriage between two people born on those days actually reap happiness. As a result, trust and respect of norms and customs will be reduced. The notion that the inability to walk more relevant with the times making less respect for social norms and customs are. If social norms and customs are no longer regarded as something that needs to be respected, then everything can happen.
Third, and experience has also become evident that not always love the legal relationship will reap happiness. Portrait of celebrity life we ​​once again have to be a real sample slides that must be underlined. Once satisfied with her partner, then divorced, then look for a new companion, then divorced again, and so on as if it is a dogmatic cycle which is mandatory for their love relationships. In fact, not satisfied with just one wife, polygamy they pinned. Whereas for the case of polygamy that upholds justice and equality is a delusion that a new handful of people who can make it happen.
That portrait ins and outs celebrities love us. Although the actual artist's life can not be equated simply with the lives of ordinary people. However, at least it is an example that the view of marriage has begun to shift. Marriage no longer be something that are sacred. However, more as a routine that transformed into a culture. And culture will easily fade so snare modernization came rushing without insulation and resistors.
However, apart from the factors above, it seems we need to agree on two of the most essential things: First, that existence is a manifestation cohabiting (real form) a lack of appreciation of religious teachings. Religious values ​​of religious teachings that only limited aspects of cognitive and utterly unable to reach the affective domain. Actually, if the noble values ​​of religious teachings that lived well, cohabiting did not have to happen.
And second, cohabiting into a new product from a shift in moral and ethical individuals who tend to confuse the right to freedom which if not handled properly will soon be extended to national issues. Cohabiting is a long products segment of the western cultural liberalization that blindly rummaging through the eastern cultural stagnation. Yet in this case, moral and ethical beliefs are reliable barometer of the most vital and filters to block the injection of western culture it. Morals and ethics often bear the social criticism of anything that deviates as part of the interaction. Without them, western culture would mock each other in and colonize its own culture.
Talk on Human Rights (HAM), we will always hit on the problem of subjectivity and objectivity. Using human rights as a weapon of freedom of relationship (cohabiting) was not a wise move. Presumably, we also need to quote the words of Dewi Lestari in his novel 'Supernova: Roots' that sometimes people do have to scold each other to understand. Context, sometimes the truth does need coercion in its application. Like it or not.
Shifting views on the institution of marriage. For them, cohabiting and marriage only have paper-thin difference that led to the problem of identity and status are yet again faced with the notion that love can not be standardized, objected and arranged in such a way. Unlike thin it is just a listing before the formal institutions of the ruling. Institutions that are considered competent to be formally consecrated love affair. Marriage was a way of tying a couple to each other, so bound by "law." But in the end, many couples divorce is because, it turns out the law was not considered fair or impartial. In addition, the status of legally married and recorded in the statistical records that led to the conviction will be useful to all parties not guarantee the end result is a happy-ending. The erosion of respect for social norms and customs prevailing in society. In this case, social norms more closely related to the customs even though they are clearly something different. Indeed, in social norms, of course there are things that potentially lead to conflict. The presumption smell reality proves that the case of the clash of love and indigenous causes a lot of complicated contradictions and problems that are hard to find a mutual meeting point. On the one hand, people want to remain enforce customary with all its originality. But on the other hand, love is a natural instinct that can not be standardized, objected or regulated by polishing the love for traditional parallel. Purity of love is considered beyond the sanctity of indigenous peoples. Then came the opinion that love is something that grows as the growth of the heart rate. While the custom is only limited to the results of human reason., Behavior that is too idolize and deify love without being able to translate the essence of true love. People are too excessive in view of love. For them, love is everything. Love here never will be far from limited to the corridor understanding the relationship of love beings of the opposite sex. It would substantially narrow the meaning of love. The love that makes the visitor must fight for all his wishes fulfilled regardless of surrounding conditions. So, the motto ‘dunia hanya milik berdua, yang lain ngontrak’ a verse which purified. All the things that will destroy the chance of love, will they lunge. If this happens, the opportunity to put religion and the law increasingly revealed as the biggest barrier width.
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Sunday, May 29, 2011

HOW CAN I MAKE MY BLOG LOAD FASTER?

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The speed at which your blog loads is critical to attracting more readers to your blog. If your blog takes a long time to load, many readers may leave your blog before they have the chance to read it. Here are a few tips and tricks that will help your blog load faster and attract more users:

Posts

Your blog's load time can be affected by the number of posts you display on your main page. You can easily edit the number of posts displayed of the main page from the Settings | Formatting tab. You can then select the number of posts you want to display on the main page. We recommend displaying 10 or fewer posts on the main page.

Third Party JavaScript and Links

For optimal blog load speed, we recommend using Google/Blogger widgets, JavaScript and links. However, if you need to use third party JavaScript and links, your blog will load much faster if you put all JavaScript at the bottom of your blog. If you have third party JavaScript and links in your sidebar, put them in at the bottom of the sidebar.

Images and Media

Learn even more ways Google products work together.
The more images, videos and other multi-media you have on your blog the longer it will take to load. However, images and other multimedia are important to attracting users to your blog, so it is important to optimize the load speed of your images and media. Here are a few tips to increase the load speed of your media:
  • Decrease the size of your images or use thumbnails that link to the full-size image.
  • If you use third party images, consider uploading them to Picasa Web Albums via the Blogger post editor.
  • If you have a large number of images to display, you can upload all your images (from a vacation or event) to a Picasa Web Album and link to the album in your post or sidebar.

Other suggestions

  • If you've added any custom CSS to your blog, make sure you put it at the top of the page.
  • The most important content of your blog that catches readers attention should load the quickest. To help you identify which items are taking the longest to load you can use Stopwatch. To use Stopwatch, enter your blog's URL into the text box and click "Start StopWatch". Stopwatch will then open your blog in a frame and will record the time it takes for everything on your blog to load, including images, videos, widgets, etc. Take note of the items that take the longest to load and modify them appropriately using our suggestions.
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VOCABULARY

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A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learning a second language.
Knowing and using a word
A vocabulary is commonly defined as "all the words known and used by a particular person". Unfortunately, this definition does not take into account a range of issues involved in knowing a word.
Productive and receptive
The first major distinction that must be made when evaluating word knowledge is whether the knowledge is productive (also called active) or receptive (also called passive) and even within those opposing categories, there is often times no clear distinction. Words that are generally understood when heard or read or seen constitute a person's receptive vocabulary. These words may range from well-known to barely known (see degree of knowledge below). In most cases, a person's receptive vocabulary is the larger of the two. For example, although a young child may not yet be able to speak, write, or sign, he or she may be able to follow simple commands and appear to understand a good portion of the language to which he or she is exposed. In this case, the child's receptive vocabulary is likely tens, if not hundreds of words but his or her active vocabulary is zero. When that child learns to speak or sign, however, the child's active vocabulary begins to increase. Productive vocabulary, therefore, generally refers to words which can be produced within an appropriate context and match the intended meaning of the speaker or signer. As with receptive vocabulary, however, there are many degrees at which a particular word may be considered part of an active vocabulary. Knowing how to pronounce, sign, or write a word does not necessarily mean that the word has been used correctly or accurately reflect the intended message of the utterance, but it does reflect a minimal amount of productive knowledge.
Degree of knowledge
Within the receptive / productive distinction lies a range of abilities which are often referred to as degree of knowledge. This simply indicates that a word gradually enters a person's vocabulary over a period of time as more aspects of word knowledge are learnt. Roughly, these stages could be described as:
   1. Never encountered the word.
   2. Heard the word, but cannot define it.
   3. Recognize the word due to context or tone of voice.
   4. Able to use the word but cannot clearly explain it.
   5. Fluent with the word – its use and definition.
Depth of knowledge
The differing degrees of word knowledge imply a greater depth of knowledge, but the process is more complex than that. There are many facets to knowing a word, some of which are not hierarchical so their acquisition does not necessarily follow a linear progression suggested by degree of knowledge. Several frameworks of work knowledge have been proposed to better operationalise this concept. One such framework includes nine facets:
   1. Orthography - written form
   2. Phonology - spoken form
   3. Reference - meaning
   4. Semantics - concept and reference
   5. Register - appropriacy of use
   6. Collocation - lexical neighbours
   7. Word Associations
   8. Syntax - grammatical function
   9. Morphology - word parts
Types of vocabulary
Listed in order of most ample to most limited:
a. Reading Vocabulary
A person's reading vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when reading. This is the largest type of vocabulary simply because it includes the other three.
b. Listening Vocabulary
A person's listening vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when listening to speech. This vocabulary is aided in size by context and tone of voice.
c. Writing Vocabulary
A person's writing vocabulary is all the words he or she can employ in writing. Contrary to the previous two vocabulary types, the writing vocabulary is stimulated by its user.
d. Speaking vocabulary
A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words he or she can use in speech. Due to the spontaneous nature of the speaking vocabulary, words are often misused. This misuse – though slight and unintentional – may be compensated by facial expressions, tone of voice, or hand gestures.
Focal Vocabulary
"Focal vocabulary" is a specialized set of terms and distinctions that is particularly important to a certain group; those with a particular focus of experience or activity. A lexicon, or vocabulary, is a language's dictionary, its set of names for things, events, and ideas. Some linguists believe that lexicon influences people's perception on things, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis. For example, the Nuer of Sudan have an elaborate vocabulary to describe cattle. The Nuer have dozens of names for cattle because of the cattle's particular histories, economies, and environments. This kind of comparison has elicited some linguistic controversy, as with the number of "Eskimo words for snow". English speakers can also elaborate their snow and cattle vocabularies when the need arises.
Vocabulary Growth
Initially, in the infancy phase, vocabulary growth requires no effort. Infants hear words and mimic them, eventually associating them with objects and actions. This is the listening vocabulary. The speaking vocabulary follows, as a child's thoughts become more reliant on its ability to express itself without gestures and mere sounds. Once the reading and writing vocabularies are attained – through questions and education – the anomalies and irregularities of language can be discovered.
In first grade, an advantaged student (i.e. a literate student) knows about twice as many words as a disadvantaged student. Generally, this gap does not tighten. This translates into a wide range of vocabulary size by age five or six, at which time an English-speaking child will know about 2,500–5,000 words. An average student learns some 3,000 words per year, or approximately eight words per day.
After leaving school, vocabulary growth reaches a plateau. People may then expand their vocabularies by engaging in activities such as reading, playing word games, and participating in vocabulary programs.
The Importance of a Vocabulary
    * An extensive vocabulary aids expressions and communication.
    * Vocabulary size has been directly linked to reading comprehension.
    * Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary.
    * A person may be judged by others based on his or her vocabulary.
Native- and Foreign- Language Vocabulary
1. Native-Language Vocabulary
Native speakers' vocabularies vary widely within a language, and are especially dependent on the level of the speaker's education. A 1995 study estimated the vocabulary size of college-educated speakers at about 17,000 word families[clarification needed], and that of first-year college students (high-school educated) at about 12,000.
2. Foreign-language vocabulary
The effects of vocabulary size on language comprehension
Francis and Kucera studied English texts totaling one million words and found that if one knows the words with the highest frequency, they will quickly know most of the words in an English text:

Vocabulary Size
Written Text Coverage
1000 words
72.0%
2000
79.7
3000
84.0
4000
86.8
5000
88.7
6000
89.9
15,851
97.8
By knowing the 2000 English words with the highest frequency, one would know 80% of the words in those texts. The numbers look even better than this if we want to cover the words we come across in an informally spoken context. Then the 2000 most common words would cover 96% of the vocabulary. These numbers should be encouraging to beginning language learners, especially because the numbers in the table are for word lemmas and knowing that many word families would give even higher coverage. However, the number of words needed may differ substantially between different languages.
Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition
Learning vocabulary is one of the first steps of learning a second language, yet a learner never finishes vocabulary acquisition. Whether in one’s native language or a second language, the acquisition of new vocabulary is a continual process. Many methods can help one acquire new vocabulary.
Memorization
Although memorization can be seen as tedious or boring, associating one word in the native language with the corresponding word in the second language until memorized is considered one of the best methods of vocabulary acquisition. By the time students reach adulthood, they generally have gathered a number of personalized memorization methods. Although many argue that memorization does not typically require the complex cognitive processing that increases retention (Sagarra & Alba, 2006), it does typically require a large amount of repetition. Other methods typically require more time and longer to recall.
Some words cannot be easily linked through association or other methods. When a word in the second language is phonologically or visually similar to a word in the native language, one often assumes they also share similar meanings. Though this is frequently the case, it is not always true. When faced with a false cognate, memorization and repetition are the keys to mastery. If a second language learner relies solely on word associations to learn new vocabulary, that person will have a very difficult time mastering false cognates. When large amounts of vocabulary must be acquired in a limited amount of time, when the learner needs to recall information quickly, when words represent abstract concepts or are difficult to picture in a mental image, or when discriminating between false cognates, rote memorization is the method to use. A neural network model of novel word learning across orthographies, accounting for L1-specific memorization abilities of L2-learners has recently been introduced (Hadzibeganovic & Cannas, 2009).
The Keyword Method
One useful method to build vocabulary in a second language is the keyword method. When additional time is available or one wants to emphasize a few key words, one can create mnemonic devices or word associations. Although these strategies tend to take longer to implement and may take longer in recollection, they create new or unusual connections that can increase retention. The keyword method requires deeper cognitive processing, thus increasing the likelihood of retention (Sagarra & Alba, 2006). This method uses fits within Paivio’s (1986) dual coding theory because it uses both two verbal and image memory systems. However, this method should be used only with words that represent concrete and imageable things. Abstract concepts or words that do not bring a distinct image to mind are difficult to associate. In addition, studies have shown that associative vocabulary learning is more successful with younger aged students (Sagarra & Alba, 2006). As students advance and age, they tend to rely less on creating word associations to remember vocabulary.
Basic English Vocabulary
Several word lists have been developed to provide people with a limited vocabulary either quick language proficiency or an effective means of communication. In 1930, Charles Kay Ogden created Basic English (850 words). Other lists include Simplified English (1000 words) and Special English (1500 words). The General Service List, 2000 high frequency words compiled by Michael West from a 5,000,000 word corpus, has been used to create a number of adapted reading texts for English language learners. Knowing 2000 English words, one could understand quite a lot of English, and even read a lot of simple material without problems.
Vocabulary Differences between Social Classes in the U.S.A.
James Flynn reports the remarkable differences in vocabulary exposure of pre-schoolers between different classes in the U.S.A. Apparently, pre-schoolers of professional families are typically exposed to 2,150 different words, pre-schoolers from working class families to 1,250 words, while those from households on welfare just 620.
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Structural Analysis of The Necklace by Guy De Maupassant

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1.    Character and Characterization
 Major Characters.
a)    Mathilde Loisel
Character Analysis
Mathilde Loisel wants to be a glamour girl. She's obsessed with glamour – with fancy, beautiful, expensive things, and the life that accompanies them. Unfortunately for her, she wasn't born into a family with the money to make her dream possible. Instead, she gets married to a "little clerk" husband and lives with him in an apartment so shabby it brings tears to her eyes . Cooped up all day in the house with nothing to do but cry over the chintzy furniture and the fabulous life she's not having, Mathilde hates her life, and probably her husband too. She weeps "all day long, from chagrin, from regret, from despair, and from distress". She dreams day after day about escaping it all.
b)    M. Loisel
Character Analysis
M. Loisel is the "little clerk in the Department of Education" to whom Mathilde's family marries Mathilde off. Mathilde herself, as we're quick to find out, isn't terribly happy about her middle-class husband. She hates the shabby "averageness" of their life, and is miserable being cooped up in their apartment all day, dreaming of the luxurious life she wants to be leading. M. Loisel, on the other hand, seems quite happy with their situation. Unlike Mathilde, he enjoys his life as it is, especially that good old homemade pot-au-feu (stew):
When she sat down to dine, before a tablecloth three days old, in front of her husband, who lifted the cover of the tureen, declaring with an air of satisfaction, "Ah, the good pot-au-feu. I don't know anything better than that," she was thinking of delicate repasts, with glittering silver, with tapestries peopling the walls with ancient figures and with strange birds in a fairy-like forest…
Yes, M. Loisel appreciates the little things. He also seems devoted to his wife. After all, he goes to all that trouble to get her the invitation to a fancy party, which he couldn't care less about himself (he sleeps through it). He sacrifices the hunting rifle he's spent months saving up for so Mathilde can buy a dress for the ball. And when she loses the necklace, he's the one who goes all over the city searching for it. Most importantly, M. Loisel spends his life's savings replacing it.
So M. Loisel seems like the simple, happy, good guy in the story, a foil for his perpetually dissatisfied wife. They make the classic unhappy bourgeois couple, in other words. But you can wonder about two things…
c)    Mme. Jeanne Forestier
Character Analysis
Mme. Jeanne Forestier is wealthy. That's basically all you need to know. She's the rich friend: the person you turn to when you need something absolutely fabulous to wear to that ball next weekend but don't have the money to buy anything appropriate. That's Mme. Forestier's role in this story: she's that friend for Mathilde. It's also Mme. Forestier who reveals at the end that her necklace was false and thereby single-handedly triggers the twist ending.
Apparently Mathilde and Mme. Forestier have known each other for a while, since their convent days. Around the time of the ball, though, it doesn't sound as if Mathilde's seen much of her lately, because it makes Mathilde too unhappy to visit her rich friend and see the life of luxury that she's not living. It doesn't sound like they see much of each other after Mathilde returns the substitute diamond necklace, either. The two women most likely don't meet again until they run into each other on the Champs Elysées ten years later. Mathilde's too ashamed to let her friend see the poverty she's living in, and is afraid to explain why she became poor (since that would mean admitting she lost the necklace).

 Minor Characters
a)    M. Georges Ramponneau
Character Analysis
M. Georges Ramponneau is the guy who throws the fabulous ball that just might be the best few hours of Mathilde's life. He's the Minister of Education, which makes him M. Loisel's boss (which is probably why M. Loisel was able to get the invitation). And he apparently "notices" Mathilde at the ball, like every other guy there.
b)    The First Jeweler
Character Analysis
The first jeweler is the man whose name is on the box in which Mme. Forestier's necklace comes. Naturally, when Mathilde loses it, he's the one she and her husband go to, to see about replacing it. This jeweler apparently didn't sell the necklace to Mme. Forestier, though, just the box. This is a little weird, isn't it? Why would you just buy a box from someone? Perhaps this is the only hint in the story that there's something a little funny about those jewels…

2.    Setting
Ø  Setting of place
“The Necklace” action takes place in Paris, France, in the second half of the nineteenth century. Specific locales include the residence of the Loisels, the home of Madame Jeanne Forestier, the palace of the Ministry of Education, Paris shops, and the streets of Paris, including the Rue des Martyrs and the Champs Elysées.



Ø  Setting of time
The setting of “The Necklace” is late 19th century.
So that's the where. When's the when? We'd say the 1880s or so, around the time Maupassant wrote it. Granted, we don't get many specific clues, not a lot of detail on clothing, or important people, places, or happenings of the time. But if the author doesn't do anything to suggest he's otherwise, it's usually a safe bet to assume he's writing in his own time.
3.    Plot 
Exposition
          The action proper begins when M. Loisel (Mathilde's husband) comes home with the invitation to the fabulous ball and Mathilde reacts by having a fit. Now we have a specific problem: Mathilde's now has the best opportunity she's ever had to have a taste of the high life, but she has nothing to wear. That problem sets the rest of the plot in motion.
<    Complication
Mathilde solves the first problem when her husband gives her money for a dress. But then she runs into a second problem: she's needs to have some jewels. Luckily, her friend Mme. Forestier is able to provide her with a fabulous diamond necklace. But now Mathilde's been entrusted with something expensive that belongs to someone else and we have the potential for disaster. It's true that the complication is often when things "get worse," and that doesn't really happen here (for that, we have to wait for the climax). In fact, after borrowing the necklace, Mathilde has the time of her life. But it's when she borrows the necklace that the possibility opens up for something really bad to happen…and it does.
<    Climax
Mathilde's discovery is the most exciting and dramatic moment in the story (until that crazy twist in the last line). It's also the turning point in the plot. Before, the story was a build-up to Mathilde's one glorious night with the rich and famous. Now it transitions into a desperate search. We have a feeling things are not going to end well.
<    Suspense
After the loss of the necklace, we're kept in constant suspense. First, there's the search for the necklace: will it be found? When it becomes clear it isn't going to be, the question becomes: what will the Loisels do? Will they find a replacement? And when they do, the question is: how the are they going to pay for it? It turns out paying for it takes quite a toll on them – their lives are ruined for ten years.
<    Denouement / Resolution
When Mathilde meets Mme. Forestier on the Champs Elysées, it looks like we're just about to tie up the last loose end in the story. The main action is over – the Loisels have finally finished paying off their debts for the necklace. All that remains is for Mathilde to see whether her friend ever noticed the substitute necklace, and tell her the sad story of the whole affair. But then things don't quite wrap up the way we expect.


4.    Point of View
“The Necklace” by Guy de Maupassant is told by using nonparticipant (3rd person) with omniscient point of view.
The story's focus is certainly on Mathilde, but the narrator does not speak from her point of view. Instead, he talks about Mathilde as if he were from the outside looking in. When he brings her up at the beginning, she's just "one of those girls". It sounds like he's seen a lot more of them than just this one. That's omniscient, all right. Mathilde's also not the only character whose thoughts he can see into; he's able to speak into her husband's thoughts just as easily, when he wants to.
5.    Theme
The Necklace is better to tell the truth and face the consequences than to try to protect one's pride by telling a lie (The Necklace theme of Pride).
You can read "The Necklace" as a story about greed, but you can also read it as a story about pride. Mathilde Loisel is a proud woman. She feels far above the humble circumstances (and the husband) she's forced to live with by her common birth. In fact, her current situation disgusts her. She's a vain one too, completely caught up in her own beauty. It could be that it is also pride that prevents Mathilde and her husband from admitting they've lost an expensive necklace. After the loss of the necklace makes Mathilde poor, and her beauty fades, she may learn a pride of a different sort: pride in her own work and endurance.
6.    Style
Guy de Maupassant uses is writing lots of really short paragraphs; this technique keeps the story moving at a clip. Often the paragraphs are little more than a single, simple sentence (the sentences are usually short too). Check out this passage describing the day after the Loisels discover they've lost the necklace:
- Her husband came back about seven o'clock. He had found nothing
-  Then he went to police headquarters, to the newspapers to offer a reward, to the cab company; he did everything, in fact, that a trace of hope could urge him to.
-   She waited all day, in the same dazed state in face of this horrible disaster.
- Loisel came back in the evening, with his face worn and white; he had discovered nothing.
When he does write longer paragraphs, Maupassant's got another notable technique. One after another, he'll string together sentences that begin with the same word and have the same basic structure. There are a lot of "She did this…She did this…She did this…" paragraphs (he's unusually fond of pronouns, it seems). As in:
She learned the rough work of the household, the odious labors of the kitchen. She washed the dishes, wearing out her pink nails on the greasy pots and the bottoms of the pans. She washed the dirty linen, the shirts and the towels, which she dried on a rope; she carried down the garbage to the street every morning, and she carried up the water, pausing for breath on every floor. And, dressed like a woman of the people, she went to the fruiterer, the grocer, the butcher, a basket on her arm, bargaining, insulted, fighting for her wretched money, sou by sou.
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Makalah Pengembangan Silabus dan RPP

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BAB I
PENDAHULUAN

A. Latar Belakang

Pemberlakuan Undang-undang No. 22 tahun 1999 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah menuntut pelaksanaan otonomi daerah dan wawasan demokrasi yang lebih menyeluruh, tentunya hal ini juga menyangkut pengelolaan sumber daya manusia. Salah satu upaya untuk mengelola dan meningkatkan sumber daya manusia, pemerintah harus memiliki keperdulian untuk memperbaiki perencanaan, pengeloaan, dan penyelenggraan pendidikan di wilayahnya masing-masing.
Selain itu tuntutan globalisasi dalam bidang pendidikan juga perlu dipertimbangkan agar hasil pendidikan nasional dapat bersaing dengan negara-negara maju.  Upaya ke arah ini kini sudah mulai diwujudkan dengan diperkenalkannya konsep pengelolaan dan penyelenggaraan pendidikan dari sentralistik ke desentralistik.
Desentralisasi pengelolaan pendidikan ini diarahkan oleh Undang-undang No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional, dan Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 19 tahun 2005 (PP 19/2005) tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan, landasan hukum tersebut mengamanatkan agar kurikulum pendidikan bagi pendidikan tingkat dasar dan tingkat menengah disusun oleh satuan pendidikan dengan mengacu kepada Standar Isi (SI) dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan (SKL) serta berpedoman pada panduan yang disusun oleh Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP).
Hal ini harus diwujudkan dalam pengembangan silabus dan pelaksanaannya yang disesuaikan dengan tuntutan kebutuhan siswa, keadaan sekolah, dan kondisi daerah. Dengan demikian, daerah atau sekolah memiliki kewenangan untuk merancang dan menentukan hal - hal yang akan diajarkan, pengelolaan pengalaman belajar, cara mengajar, dan menilai keberhasilan suatu proses belajar dan mengajar. Seiring dengan adanya upaya untuk memberdayakan peran serta daerah dan masyarakat dalam pengelolaan pendidikan, Pemerintah telah memberlakukan otonomi dalam bidang pendidikan yang diwujudkan dalam PP No. 25 tahun 2000 pasal 2 ayat 2 yang menyatakan bahwa pemerintah (Pusat) memiliki kewenangan dalam menyusun kurikulum dan penilaian hasil belajar secara nasional, hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan implementasinya dikembangkan dan dikelola oleh pelaksana di daerah terutama di daerah tingkat II dan sekolah.
Pemerintah Pusat mengembangkan antara lain (1) Kompetensi Dasar dan materi pelajaran pokok, (2) kalender pendidikan dan jumlah jam belajar efektif setiap tahun dan pedoman-pedoman pelaksanaannya. Sementara para pengelola dan pengembang di daerah diharapkan dapat (1) mengembangkan menjabarkan kompetensi dan materi pelajaran pokok mengacu pada standar nasional, menyusun kurikulum muatan lokal (2) menyusun dan menetapkan petunjuk pelaksanaan kalender pendidikan dan jam belajar (3) menyusun dan menetapkan petunjuk pelaksanaan penilaian hasil belajar yang didasarkan pada ketetapan pemerintah secara nasional. Berdasarkan ketentuan di atas, daerah atau sekolah memiliki ruang gerak yang luas untuk melakukan modifikasi dan mengembangkan variasi penyelenggaraan pendidikan sesuai dengan keadaan, potensi, dan kebutuhan daerah serta kondisi siswa. Kebijakan di atas juga diharapkan dapat memenuhi tuntutan masyarakat melalui program reformasi yang menginginkan adanya perubahan mendasar dalam sistem pendidikan, baik secara konseptual maupun aturan-aturan pelaksanaannya.
Kebijakan di atas kini telah diperbaharui dengan Peraturan Pemerintah yang terbaru dimana dari aspek kurikulum, banyak hal yang perlu dipersiapkan oleh daerah, karena sebagian besar kebijakan yang berkaitan dengan implementasi kurikulum dilakukan oleh daerah sebagaimana tercantum dalam landasan yuridis berikut ini:
PP NO 19 TAHUN 2005 Pasal 17 Ayat (2) ;Sekolah dan komite sekolah, atau madrasah dan komite madrasah, mengembangkan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan dan silabusnya berdasarkan kerangka dasar kurikulum dan standar kompetensi lulusan, di bawah supervisi dinas kabupaten/kota yang bertanggung jawab di bidang pendidikan untuk SD, SMP, SMA, dan SMK, dan departemen yang menangani urusan pemerintahan di bidang agama untuk MI. MTs, MA, dan MAK
PP NO 19 TAHUN 2005 Pasal 20; Rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP) adalah rencana yang menggambarkan prosedur dan pengorganisasian pembelajaran untuk mencapai satu kompetensi dasar yang ditetapkan dalam Standar Isi dan dijabarkan dalam silabus. Lingkup Rencana Pembelajaran paling luas mencakup 1 (satu) kompetensi dasar yang terdiri atas 1 (satu) indikator atau beberapa indikator untuk 1 (satu) kali  pertemuan atau lebih.
Hal ini berarti daerah perlu menyusun silabus dengan cara melakukan penjabaran terhadap stándar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar ke dalam bentuk silabus dan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran, yang memuat materi setempat yang relevan, serta penyusunan kurikulum daerah yang sesuai dengan kondisi, kebutuhan serta potensi setempat, yang kemudian dikenal dengan istilah Kurikulum Tingklat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP).

B. Deskripsi Singkat
            Makalah  ini membahas tentang apa dan mengapa silabus perlu dikembangkan, bagaimana mekanisme pengembangan silabus, apa komponen dan format silabus, bagaimana menyusun pengalaman belajar, dan mengembangkan silabus berkelanjutan berupa rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP).
Makalah secara umum sangat bermanfaat bagi para peserta diklat untuk menambah wawasan, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan dalam merencanakan mengimplementasi kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan dan memberikan penjelasan tentang prosedur dan cara menjabarkan Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar yang terdapat dalam Standar Isi, menjadi materi pokok, kegiatan pembelajaran, indikator, dan penilaian, serta menentukan sumber-sumber bahan pembelajaran.  

D. Tujuan Pembelajaran
Setelah selesai pembelajaran diklat ini, diharapkan dapat:
1. menjelaskan pengertian silabus dan RPP
2. menjelaskan prinsip pengembangan silabus dan RPP
3. menjelaskan bagaimana langkah-langkah  pengembangan silabus dan RPP
3. menjelaskan ragam  komponen dari format silabus dan RPP
4. menyusun silabus berkelanjutan dalam rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran.


BAB II
PRINSIP DASAR PENGEMBANGAN SILABUS
A.  Pengertian Silabus
Silabus adalah rencana pembelajaran pada suatu dan/atau kelompok mata pelajaran/tema tertentu yang mencakup standar kompetensi , kompetensi dasar, materi pokok/pembelajaran, kegiatan pembelajaran, indikator, penilaian, alokasi waktu, dan sumber/bahan/alat belajar. Silabus merupakan penjabaran standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar ke dalam materi pokok/pembelajaran, kegiatan pembelajaran, dan indikator pencapaian kompetensi untuk penilaian.
Silabus merupakan seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan tentang kegiatan pembelajaran, pengelolaan kelas, dan penilaian hasil belajar.
Silabus berisikan komponen pokok yang dapat menjawab pertanyaan berikut.:
(1)         Kompetensi apa yang akan dikembangkan siswa?
(2)         Bagaimana cara mengembangkannya?
(3)         Bagaimana cara mengetahui bahwa kompetensi tersebut sudah dicapai siswa?
B.  Prinsip Pengembangan Silabus
1. Ilmiah . Keseluruhan materi dan kegiatan yang menjadi muatan dalam silabus harus benar dan dapat dipertanggungjawabkan secara keilmuan.
2. Relevan.  Cakupan, kedalaman, tingkat kesukaran dan urutan penyajian materi dalam silabus sesuai dengan tingkat perkembangan fisik, intelektual, sosial, emosional, dan spritual peserta didik.
3. Sistematis. Komponen-komponen silabus  saling berhubungan secara fungsional dalam mencapai kompetensi.
4. Konsisten. Adanya hubungan yang konsisten (ajeg, taat asas) antara kompetensi dasar, indikator, materi pokok, pengalaman belajar, sumber belajar, dan sistem penilaian.
5. Memadai.  Cakupan indikator, materi pokok, pengalaman belajar, sumber belajar, dan sistem penilaian cukup untuk menunjang pencapaian kompetensi dasar.
6. Aktual dan Kontekstual.  Cakupan indikator, materi pokok, pengalaman belajar, sumber belajar, dan sistem penilaian memperhatikan perkembangan ilmu, teknologi, dan seni mutakhir dalam kehidupan nyata, dan peristiwa yang terjadi.
7. Fleksibel.  Keseluruhan komponen silabus dapat mengakomodasi keragaman peserta didik, pendidik, serta dinamika perubahan yang terjadi di sekolah dan tuntutan masyarakat.
8. Menyeluruh.  Komponen silabus mencakup keseluruhan ranah kompetensi (kognitif, afektif, psikomotor).
C. Unit Waktu Silabus
1. Silabus mata pelajaran disusun berdasarkan seluruh alokasi waktu yang   
disediakan untuk mata pelajaran selama penyelenggaraan pendidikan di 
 tingkat  satuan pendidikan.
2. Penyusunan silabus memperhatikan alokasi waktu yang disediakan per
    semester, per tahun, dan alokasi waktu mata pelajaran lain yang sekelompok.
3. Implementasi pembelajaran per semester menggunakan penggalan silabus 
     sesuai dengan Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar untuk mata  
     pelajaran dengan alokasi waktu yang tersedia pada struktur kurikulum.
     Khusus untuk  SMK/MAK menggunakan penggalan silabus berdasarkan
     satuan kompetensi.
D. Pengembang Silabus
Pengembangan silabus  dapat dilakukan oleh para guru secara mandiri atau berkelompok dalam sebuah sekolah atau beberapa sekolah, kelompok Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGMP) pada atau Pusat Kegiatan Guru (PKG), dan Dinas Pendikan.
1.      Disusun secara mandiri oleh guru apabila guru yang bersangkutan mampu mengenali karakteristik siswa, kondisi sekolah dan lingkungannya.
2.       Apabila guru mata pelajaran karena sesuatu hal belum dapat melaksanakan pengembangan silabus secara mandiri, maka pihak sekolah dapat mengusahakan untuk membentuk kelompok guru mata pelajaran untuk mengembangkan silabus yang akan digunakan oleh sekolah tersebut.
3.      Di SD/MI semua guru kelas, dari kelas I sampai dengan kelas VI, menyusun silabus secara bersama. Di SMP/MTs untuk mata pelajaran IPA dan IPS terpadu disusun secara bersama oleh guru yang terkait.
4.      Sekolah yang belum mampu mengembangkan silabus secara mandiri, sebaiknya bergabung dengan sekolah-sekolah lain melalui forum MGMP/PKG untuk bersama-sama mengembangkan silabus yang akan digunakan oleh sekolah-sekolah dalam lingkup MGMP/PKG setempat.
5.      Dinas Pendidikan setempat dapat memfasilitasi penyusunan silabus dengan membentuk sebuah tim yang terdiri dari para guru berpengalaman di bidangnya masing-masing.



BAB III
LANGKAH-LANGKAH PENGEMBANGAN SILABUS DAN
RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
A. Langkah-langkah Pengembangan Silabus
Sebagaimana telah dikemukakan dalam uraian sebelumnya Silabus adalah rencana pembelajaran pada suatu dan/atau kelompok mata pelajaran/tema tertentu yang mencakup standar kompetensi, kompetensi dasar, materi pokok/pembelajaran, indikator, penilaian, alokasi waktu, dan sumber/bahan/alat belajar.  Silabus  merupakan penjabaran standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar ke dalam materi pokok/pembelajaran, kegiatan pembelajaran, dan indikator pencapaian kompetensi untuk penilaian. Mengembangkan silabus dilakukan melalui langkah-langkah sebagai berikut:
1. Mengkaji Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar
Mengkaji standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar mata pelajaran  
 sebagaimana tercantum pada Standar Isi, dengan  memperhatikan hal-hal  
  berikut:
    a. urutan berdasarkan hierarki konsep disiplin ilmu dan/atau tingkat kesulitan 
        materi, tidak harus selalu sesuai dengan urutan yang ada di Standar Isi;
    b. keterkaitan antara standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar dalam mata  
        pelajaran;
c. keterkaitan antara standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar antar mata     
    pelajaran.
2. Mengidentifikasi Materi Pokok/Pembelajaran
Mengidentifikasi materi pokok/pembelajaran yang menunjang pencapaian kompetensi dasar dengan mempertimbangkan:
a.       potensi peserta didik;
b.      relevansi dengan karakteristik daerah,
c.       tingkat perkembangan fisik, intelektual, emosional, sosial, dan spritual peserta didik;
d.      kebermanfaatan bagi peserta didik;
e.       struktur keilmuan;
f.        aktualitas, kedalaman, dan keluasan materi pembelajaran;
g.       relevansi dengan kebutuhan peserta didik dan tuntutan lingkungan; dan
h.       alokasi waktu.
3.  Mengembangkan Kegiatan Pembelajaran
Kegiatan pembelajaran dirancang untuk memberikan pengalaman belajar yang melibatkan proses mental dan fisik melalui interaksi antarpeserta didik, peserta didik dengan guru, lingkungan,  dan sumber belajar lainnya dalam rangka pencapaian kompetensi dasar.  Pengalaman belajar yang dimaksud dapat terwujud melalui penggunaan pendekatan pembelajaran yang bervariasi dan berpusat pada peserta didik. Pengalaman belajar memuat kecakapan hidup yang perlu dikuasai peserta didik. Hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam mengembangkan kegiatan pembelajaran adalah sebagai berikut.
a. Kegiatan pembelajaran disusun untuk memberikan bantuan kepada para pendidik, khususnya guru, agar dapat melaksanakan proses pembelajaran secara profesional.
b.      Kegiatan pembelajaran memuat rangkaian kegiatan yang harus dilakukan oleh peserta didik secara berurutan untuk mencapai kompetensi dasar.
c.       Penentuan urutan kegiatan pembelajaran harus sesuai dengan hierarki konsep materi pembelajaran.
d.      Rumusan pernyataan dalam kegiatan pembelajaran minimal mengandung dua unsur penciri yang mencerminkan pengelolaan pengalaman belajar siswa, yaitu kegiatan siswa dan materi.
4.  Merumuskan Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi
Indikator merupakan penanda pencapaian kompetensi dasar yang ditandai oleh perubahan perilaku yang dapat diukur yang mencakup sikap, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan.
Indikator dikembangkan sesuai dengan karakteristik peserta didik, mata pelajaran, satuan pendidikan, potensi daerah dan dirumuskan dalam kata kerja operasional yang terukur dan/atau dapat diobservasi. Indikator digunakan sebagai dasar untuk menyusun alat penilaian.
5.  Penentuan Jenis Penilaian
Penilaian pencapaian kompetensi dasar peserta didik dilakukan berdasarkan indikator. Penilaian dilakukan dengan menggunakan tes dan non tes dalam bentuk tertulis maupun lisan, pengamatan kinerja, pengukuran sikap, penilaian hasil karya berupa tugas, proyek dan/atau produk, penggunaan portofolio, dan penilaian diri.
Penilaian merupakan serangkaian kegiatan untuk memperoleh, menganalisis, dan menafsirkan data tentang proses dan hasil belajar peserta didik yang dilakukan secara sistematis dan berkesinambungan, sehingga menjadi informasi yang bermakna dalam pengambilan keputusan. Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penilaian.
a.       Penilaian diarahkan untuk mengukur pencapaian kompetensi.
b.      Penilaian menggunakan acuan kriteria; yaitu berdasarkan apa yang bisa dilakukan peserta didik setelah mengikuti proses pembelajaran, dan bukan untuk menentukan posisi seseorang terhadap kelompoknya.
c.       Sistem yang direncanakan adalah sistem penilaian yang berkelanjutan. Berkelanjutan dalam arti semua indikator ditagih, kemudian hasilnya dianalisis untuk menentukan kompetensi dasar yang telah dimiliki dan yang belum, serta untuk mengetahui kesulitan siswa.
d.      Hasil penilaian dianalisis untuk menentukan tindak lanjut. Tindak lanjut berupa perbaikan proses pembelajaran berikutnya, program remedi bagi peserta didik yang pencapaian kompetensinya di bawah kriteria ketuntasan, dan program pengayaan bagi peserta didik yang telah memenuhi kriteria ketuntasan.
e.       Sistem penilaian harus disesuaikan dengan pengalaman belajar yang ditempuh dalam proses pembelajaran. Misalnya, jika pembelajaran menggunakan pendekatan tugas observasi lapangan maka evaluasi harus diberikan baik pada proses (keterampilan proses) misalnya teknik wawancara, maupun produk/hasil melakukan observasi lapangan yang berupa informasi yang dibutuhkan.
6. Menentukan Alokasi Waktu
Penentuan alokasi waktu pada setiap kompetensi dasar didasarkan pada jumlah minggu efektif dan alokasi waktu mata pelajaran per minggu dengan mempertimbangkan jumlah kompetensi dasar, keluasan, kedalaman, tingkat kesulitan, dan tingkat kepentingan kompetensi dasar.  Alokasi waktu yang dicantumkan dalam silabus merupakan perkiraan waktu rerata untuk menguasai kompetensi dasar yang dibutuhkan oleh peserta didik yang beragam.
7. Menentukan Sumber Belajar
Sumber belajar adalah rujukan, objek dan/atau bahan yang digunakan untuk kegiatan pembelajaran, yang berupa media cetak dan elektronik, narasumber, serta lingkungan fisik, alam, sosial, dan budaya.
Penentuan sumber belajar didasarkan pada standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar serta materi pokok/pembelajaran, kegiatan pembelajaran, dan indikator pencapaian kompetensi.
B. Contoh Format Silabus
Dalam menyusun silabus dapat memilih salah satu format yang ada di antara berbagai macam  format yang berlaku.


SILABUS
Mata Pelajaan                          :.....................                         
Alokasi Waktu per Semester    :  ............. jam pelajaran
Kelas/Semester                        :..................................
Standar Kompetensi                 : .............................
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